咖啡風味輪,是由美國精品咖啡協會與世界咖啡研究室WCR共同設計,協助你品嚐咖啡與杯測;既然風味輪是輔助用的工具,表示它可以很直覺地被使用,以下有幾個使用風味輪的小訣竅:

步驟一:概觀風味輪

風味輪不僅實用也很具美感,就跟一杯好咖啡一樣,它全面地闡述了咖啡風味,先瀏覽這些風味描述並吸收這些字詞,可能會看到一些不熟悉的詞,但沒關係,我們稍候再來談這部分,先看看這張圖所寫的風味吧!

步驟二:品嚐咖啡

風味輪可以應用在非正式或專業的咖啡杯測上,在任何情況下,杯測的關鍵就是憑直覺去品嚐咖啡,嚴謹地準備杯測程序,並從不同面向來品嚐咖啡:研磨後的乾香氣、注水之後的溼香氣、啜吸時感受到的風味。我們將「風味」定義為味覺與嗅覺受器所感受到的結合,風味輪則包含了味覺(由舌頭感受)和嗅覺(由鼻腔感受)的感受。然而品嚐時大多數都只是混合的感覺,例如檸檬的酸及香氣、甜味、苦味、特殊的香氣。記住喝到的咖啡風味,接著再來看風味輪。

步驟三:從風味輪中央開始看

先從風味輪中央由內往外看,越廣義的描述越靠近中央,越精準的描述越靠外圍。使用時可以隨己意停在風味輪任一處;使用者看得越外圍,描述的風味就會越具體與精準。例如,使用者可能在品嚐衣索比亞咖啡時,喝到水果的風味,這時看往水果味(fruity)這個部分,使用者可能有不同的描述字詞:水果味是指莓果?果乾?柑橘類?還是其他水果?如果選擇了柑橘類水果,則會有葡萄柚、柳橙、檸檬或萊姆等更明確的描述。當找出了風味後,則會回到風味輪中央並重新開始尋找喝到的另一種風味,一直重複這個動作,直到大家都認為這杯咖啡的風味已被徹底描述。這是風味輪的基本功能,也非常容易使用。然而風味輪可不只這樣,專業使用者可以進一步的使用它。

步驟四:閱讀字詞

咖啡風味輪是依據World Coffee Research編寫的「咖啡感官詞典」繪製而成,讓使用者可以循科學依據品鑑咖啡。即使許多人並不會用它來訓練味覺,但這個詞典依然可以輔助大家使用風味輪。每個風味特性都有其定義與資料來源,讓使用者可以檢視特定字詞。風味輪和感官詞典可以良好的搭配使用,如果有需要還可以針對字詞追溯來源。詞典不僅是訓練我們描述風味的工具,對專業杯測師也是很好的參考資訊。雖然有很多都是我們不熟悉的化學或技術用語,但上面都有清楚的解釋與來源。

 

步驟五:參考風味的資料來源

WCR每個詞都有對應的資料來源,而很多都是很容易在日常生活如超市或網路上得到的資源。但要記得香氣並不能被觀察到,風味也許可以,所以必須要透過品嚐與嗅聞咖啡,增加對香氣與風味的連結。建議可以用杯子嗅聞,讓香氣集中、將感受到的筆記下來,再透過回想連結你感受到的風味。

步驟6:再回到風味輪中央

隨著對詞典上字詞的了解(有時可能還會引用一到兩個詞),品嚐咖啡並再回到風味輪的中央,針對一個特定的字詞來描述風味。接著再看到鄰近的字詞,你會發現字詞間的距離在圖上不太一樣,如果有兩個詞在圖上是連在一起,就表示專業杯測師認為他們在屬性上是緊密關聯的字詞;如果中間有空格,就表示杯測師認為他們並沒有太大關聯性。進一步延伸,若風味輪中間的空格較大,代表分類不太有關聯性;如果在做味覺校正時,這在描述風味時對杯測師會很有幫助,或是讓大多數人理解你所描述的風味。

 

 

從中央開始:如果兩個字詞有關聯,代表此研究中的專業杯測師認為他們緊密關聯;如果有空格,則代表字詞的關聯性低。

 

 

步驟7:使用自己的描述

使用這些工具的好處,在於它們可以成為杯測的共同語言,咖啡業者都可以看得懂並使用風味輪上的描述,有它在杯測室或咖啡店,就可以用一套共通的方法來溝通。雖然發揮所能盡量的描述是件好事,但這會增加溝通的困難度。因此著重在共同語言,就是我們在討論咖啡時所追求的事。

 

步驟8:研究圖上的顏色

我們的視覺感官跟其他感官有強烈的連結,食物的外觀會影響我們對它味道的聯想,也因此我們常會用視覺來形容風味:這杯咖啡嚐起來「明亮」或「紅」「綠」等形容。由於發現這件事,我們特別注意到風味輪上的顏色,會盡量連結該字詞的顏色屬性。這可能幫助那些正在猶豫的杯測師找到一種描述,如果杯測師只能表達成「它嚐起來像某種紅色水果」,這時就可以看風味輪上的紅色區塊。「某種棕色的食物」則會引導杯測師到風味輪左側,在那裏可能就是刺激的香料或穀物類的風味。

 

當杯測師、老師、感官科學家及咖啡業者都使用這個工具,將會使風味輪越來越出頭。我們都渴望並探索著新的技術與想法!

 

 

 

Original source:

http://www.scanews.coffee/2016/02/05/how-to-use-the-coffee-tasters-flavor-wheel-in-8-steps/

 

 

The Coffee Tasters Flavor Wheel, a collaborative effort by the Specialty Coffee Association of America and World Coffee Research, is designed to be a tool for the coffee taster. As a tool, it is meant to be intuitive, enjoyable to use, and a benefit to those who seek to analyze and describe coffees. Here are a few tips on how to use the wheel properly.

 

Step 1: Take it All In

The wheel is meant to be beautiful, like the greatest coffees can be. It represents a comprehensive, kaleidoscopic picture of coffee flavor. Let the words wash over you, and soak it in. You might see some words you’re not familiar with. That’s ok, we’ll deal with those later. For now, just marvel at the possible complexity of coffee.

Step 2: Taste some Coffee

The flavor wheel can be used either in casual tasting or professional coffee cupping. In either situation, the key is to taste mindfully. Prepare the coffee carefully, observing the coffee at different stages: the fragrance just after grinding, the aromas which escape the moment water hits the coffee grounds, and the flavors that fill the palate when the coffee is sipped. ‘Flavor’ is defined as a combination of taste and smell, and the flavor wheel contains attributes on the entire continuum between basic tastes (those things perceived only by the tongue) to pure aromatics (those things that only can be smelled). Most flavors, however, are a mixture of the senses: the sourness and unique aromatics of the lemon, for example, or the sweetness, bitterness, and characteristic aromatics of molasses. Notice the coffee and its flavors. Now turn to the wheel.

Step 3: Start at the Center

The wheel’s design encourages the taster to start at the center, and work outward. The most general taste descriptors are near the center, and they get more specific as the tiers work outward. The taster can stop anywhere along the way, but the farther outward the taster works, the more specific the description might be. As an example, the coffee taster might detect a fruitiness when tasting a coffee from Ethiopia. Moving through the ‘fruity’ section of the wheel, they are confronted with a choice: is the fruitiness reminiscent of berries, dried fruit, citrus fruit, or something else? If the taster decides ‘citrus fruit’, they then can sharpen the descriptor: is it ‘grapefruit’, ‘orange’, ‘lemon’ or ‘lime’? Having identified that flavor, the taster can move back to the center and start again, zeroing in on another flavor, and another, until they feel their description of the coffee is complete. This is the basic function of the wheel, and can be used very simply at that level. However, there is more to the wheel, and the expert taster can move further.

Step 4: Read the Lexicon

The Coffee Tasters Flavor Wheel is based on the World Coffee Research Sensory Lexicon, a standard set of attributes designed to allow trained sensory panels evaluate coffees for scientific research purposes. Although the vast majority of flavor wheel users will not be trained in this methodology, the lexicon can still be used to define the attributes represented on the wheel. Each attribute has a definition and a ‘reference’, which can be used to calibrate tasters who may seek clarification on specific attributes. The flavor wheel and lexicon therefore work best in tandem, the taster referencing the lexicon for attribute descriptors and references if needed. The lexicon is a tool for sensory panels trained in descriptive analysis, but offers a great source of information for the professional taster. There will be unfamiliar words to many- technical and chemical descriptions of flavors- but the lexicon explains them clearly and provides sensory references for all of its attributes.

 

Step 5: Check out some References

Every attribute in the WCR lexicon has a reference, and many of these references are readily available in supermarkets and from online sources. Keeping in mind that aromatic references (noted as such) should never be ingested, though flavor references can be, you can taste and smell the references to orient yourself to those flavors in coffee. Many references are suggested to be smelled from snifters, which concentrate the aromatics. Take notes. Work on your sense memory.

 

 

Step 6: Start at the Center Again

 

With a knowledge of the Lexicon Attributes in mind (perhaps even having referenced an attribute or two) taste a coffee and start in the center again, working your way out to a specific attribute. Now, look to the neighboring attributes. You may notice the attribute ‘cells’ appear to be a different distance from one another. If two attribute cells are connected, it means that the professional tasters in our research thought of these attributes as being closely related, and if there is a gap, that means the tasters thought of them as being slightly less closely related. The further the gap extends to the center of the wheel, the less closely related the tasters found the attribute descriptors to each other. This might be helpful when ‘calibrating’ coffee descriptors to other tasters’ experiences, or designing taste descriptors that are intelligible to the maximum number of people.

Start at the Center: If two attribute cells are connected, it means that the professional tasters in our research thought of these attributes as being closely related, and if there is a gap, that means the tasters thought of them as being slightly less closely related.

 

Step 7: Use your Words

The great thing about these tools is that they form a foundational common language for coffee tasters. The existence of an industry-standard wheel means that all coffee professionals can study a common document, have it in our tasting labs and shops, and base our communication on a shared set of terms. While imaginative descriptors and flights of fancy are great, sometimes they make communication more difficult. In certain contexts, therefore, focusing on common language—illustrated in the wheel—is just the thing for those who seek to communicate about coffee.

 

Step 8: Study the Colors

Our visual sense is strongly connected with our other senses, and the way foods look give us important cues to how they are likely to taste. For this reason, we often use visual terms to describe flavor: a coffee can taste “bright” or “red” or “green”. With this awareness, we paid special attention to the colors on the wheel, trying hard to link the terms with colors that represent the attribute clearly. This might help a struggling taster find a descriptor: if they can only articulate “it tastes like a red fruit of some kind”, the taster can scan the red-colored attributes on the wheel. “Something brown” might send the taster to the left side of the wheel, where the brown territory is, perhaps stimulating the awareness of spice or grain notes.

More ways to use this wheel will doubtlessly emerge as tasters, teachers, sensory scientists, and coffee professionals engage with and use this tool. We are eager to explore new techniques and ideas!